Macadamia Tetraphylla is an evergreen tree that can grow up to 16 metres tall, but is usually smaller. The plant has long, narrow, thorny leaves. The tree is particularly valued for its edible seed, considered by many to be one of the most delicious seeds in the world. It is cultivated for its edible seed in many tropical and sub-tropical areas, particularly Hawaii and now here at the Putz Agarwood Farm.
Dried kernels are roasted and manufactured into a wide number of products featuring whole or half kernels that are unsalted, dusted with finely ground confectionery salt, or flavored. Chocolate-coated kernels have become a major product. Second grade and broken kernels (pieces) are used in confectionery products such as brittles and candies or diced for use as garnishes, ice cream, sherbets, cakes, and pastries. Kernels are also milled into a premium nut butter and the oil is extracted for use in food and cosmetics.
Macadamia nut is used for extracting oil by cold pressing. It has various uses in cooking as well as other purposes. It is used for the production of hair care and skin care products. This oil has warm golden hue color with a sweet butter taste and mild nutty flavor. Macadamia oil has high concentration of Palmitoleic acid that has richness in Omega 7. These nuts have high content of zinc, selenium and fatty acids that assist body to burn fat more effectively.
The macadamia tree is usually propagated by grafting and layering, and does not begin to produce commercial quantities of seeds until it is 7–10 years old, but once established, may continue bearing for over 100 years. Macadamias prefer fertile, well-drained soils, a rainfall of 1,000–2,000 mm (40–80 in), and temperatures not falling below 10 °C (50 °F), with an optimum temperature of 25 °C (80 °F). The roots are shallow and trees can be blown down in storms; like most Proteaceae, they are also susceptible to Phytophthora root disease. As of 2019, the macadamia nut is the most expensive nut in the world, which is attributed to the slow harvesting process.