Dalandan

Common Name: Dalandan
Scientific Name: Citrus Aurantium

Dalandan is a small, erect tree with smooth, greenish white shoots with spinescent thorns. Leaves are oblong to subelliptic, 10 centimeters long by about 4 centimeters wide. Petiole is narrowly winged. Flowers are white, bisexual, solitary or few clustered, smooth, and growing from the uppermost leaf axils. Fruit is nearly spherical, 5 to 9 centimeters in diameter, and mamillate or not, the skin is orange red and tight; partitioned inside with yellowish juice sacks. Taste is usually sweet, occasionally sour. Dalandan peels is a source of Dalandan Essential Oil.

Neroli oil is an essential oil, extracted from the flowers of bitter orange trees (Citrus Aurantium). It’s also known as orange blossom oil. The oil is extracted from the flowers by steam distillation. Neroli oil emits a rich, floral scent, with citrusy overtones.

 A good source of vitamin C.
– Rich in flavonoids.
– Dried flowers is a pleasant flavoring agent.
– Condiment, fruit, oil.
– Peel used for making marmalades and candies.
– Flowers used for scenting tea.
– Essential oil from the dried fruit used as food flavoring.
– Fruit rind used for baking flavors.
– In Iran, the orange peel used as flavoring for boiled rice and other vegetables.
– Fruit is used for making sauces, creams, jelly, honey, etc

Folkloric
– Juice is a cooling drink, and used as food, particularly for the febrile and scorbutic.
– In the Philippines, the leaves, peel, and flowers are used as stomachic and antiscorbutic.
– Decoction of rind taken for gas pains. Decoction of peel also used as emmenagogue.
– Leaves are applied to reduce swelling in the legs. Also used as tonic, pectorals and in bronchitis.
– For nausea and fainting, squeeze rind near nostril for irritant inhalation.
– Dried flowers used as stimulant and preventive for dysentery. Flowers used as antispasmodic.
– Orange peel is an ingredient in the preparation of tincture of cinchona and tincture of gentian.
– Dried rind is used as tonic dyspepsia and for general debility; also used to check vomiting.
– Fresh rind is rubbed on the face for acne or eczema.
– Juice used with salt as a ringworm remedy.
– Water distilled from the orange flowers used as stimulant, and as a refreshing drink in nervousness and hysterical cases.
– Used as a stimulant and appetite suppressant
– In traditional Chinese medicine, Zhi shi, the immature dried fruit of citrus aurantium, has been used to treat chest congestion and stimulate gastrointestinal functions. Peel of immature fruit used for indigestion, abdominal pains, constipation, and dysenteric diarrhea.
– Bitter orange seeds or pips, first torrefied to remove the husks, taken as a stimulating remedy.
– Oil from the rind is used internally and externally, as a stimulating liniment, for gout and rheumatism.
– In Mexico and South America, leaf used as tonic, laxative, sedative; peel used for stomach aches and high blood pressure.
– Basque in Europe used the leaves for stomachaches, insomnia and palpitations.Others
– In India, neroli oil, mixed with vaseline, for leech prevention.
– In recent years, Citrus aurantium supplements has been promoted for appetite control.
– Perfumery: Oil distilled from flowers used in perfumery.
– Orange peel is an ingredient in the preparation of tincture of cinchona and tincture of gentian.

Essential Oils: Leaf oil of C. aurantium yielded 14 components, the major ones linalool 39%, linalyl acetate 39%, and alpha-terpineol 7%. Peel oil yielded 20 compounds, the major ones being limonene 91%, beta-myrcene 3% and linalool 1%. 

Cytotoxicity / Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line / Essential Oil: Study investigated the cytotoxic effect of essential oils of Citrus aurantium L. subspamara peels on a colorectal cancer cell line (Lim1863). Results showed limonene and myrcene to be the main components. The essential oil decreased the viability of Lim cell by over 80%. Results suggest a good potential for antitumor effect.

Antimicrobial / Citrus Rind Oil: Study evaluated essential oil of C. aurantium for antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and fungi. The essential showed significant antimicrobial activity, but the test microorganisms showed different sensitivities, with significant activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella paratyphi. 

Anxiolytic-like Activity / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the biologic activity underlying the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of C. aurantium essential oil. Results showed the anxiolytic activity to be mediated by the serotonergic system (5-HT1A receptors). 

Aromatherapy with Oil in First Stage Labor: Aromatherapy is the use of fragrant essential oils to stimulate the olfactory system and can create a state of calmness and help in alleviate anxiety. Study showed that aromatherapy with C. aurantium blossom oil is a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and effective intervention to reduce anxiety during labor. 

Aromatherapy Improved Sleep Quality in Heart Patients: In a study on Coronary Care Unit patients, aromatherapy with C. aurantium had a meaningful effect on the initiating time of sleep, the sleep longevity, and sleep again after a period of being awake. Results suggest the essence of C aurantium can be used as a sleep remedy for sleep disorders in heart patients.